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Users are encouraged to write their own scripts or to download them from communities. Then visit UserScripts. Instead, Lee simply sticks with Firefox 2. While the company once charged for its desktop browser or forced users to view banner ads right underneath the toolbar , they listened to user feedback and went free in The company now makes money through search-based ad affiliate programs and charges for versions of its client that run on various alternative platforms, such as mobile phones and even the Nintendo Wii.
With an experience and feature set all its own, Opera is arguably in a league of its own on the Mac for its decidedly unique UI and occasional innovations to the web-surfing experience. Begin typing an address, and Opera can usually auto-fill it for you. A new 9. In addition to simple URLs, Opera can now search every word on web sites stored in your history hint: adjust your history preferences if this sounds appealing.
WebKit is also what most other third-party applications use if they offer any kind of web-browsing features. Interested in the images on the page? One click, and you can see all the images the page uses and the URLs for said images. Clicking the cookies reveals the cookies a site sends to your machine. It really is a much more understandable way to view the source of a page see Figure To get that new browser feeling throughout your Mac, you need to find somewhere to change the default browser setting.
Maximize your Safari experience with these add-ons and tips. Safari is the default browser on the Mac, and with the Internet pervading every corner of daily life, the chances that you spend more time using a web browser than anything else are pretty good. Quick Hack Safari Tricks Safari is a straight-ahead browser.
You can use it all day long, and the program will function how you probably expect it to function. But Safari has more to offer than is apparent on the first pass. Safari has tricks. Because we all have base instincts, Apple has included a feature with Safari called private browsing. Old schoolers are aware of this and have long since adjusted their browsing habits accordingly. To get back to the warningfree days of Safari 2 and earlier, fire up the Terminal and type all on one line : defaults write com. To unhack this change, repeat the command and change 0 to 1.
If you end up at a site of questionable taste before you enable private browsing, you can reset Safari, but that nukes everything from your history to your cookies to your passwords. Too much to ask! Why not go private retroactively? The first step is obvious: delete your Google searches see Figure If you really want privacy in your home setup, either disable logging for your router or protect the router from inspection by others with a strong password. With Safari ,you can delete items selectively from your history. Accessing the only the stuff you want with the Activity pane Simply double-clicking any item in the Activity pane will open it in a Safari window for your perusing pleasure.
As a writer who relies heavily on the content I create for Ars Technica to feed my family, I must advise you to please be kind and obey the copyright rules that web sites and content owners apply to their work. So why let one browser define your web habits? Find out how to access your bookmarks, passwords and even engage in a little social fun while unchaining yourself from both browsers and locations.
You get the idea. While 1Password also stores its login and password information in a secure keychain that you can in fact read with Keychain and subsequently sync via. Mac , the similarities stop there. Users can create multiple profiles with different addresses, standard forum information your web site, IM name, and occupation, for example and even credit-card numbers for one click auto-filling when shopping or registering for virtually any site on the Web.
Another significant benefit of 1Password is that it can integrate with some browsers and other popular applications that can surf the Web but do not support or directly interact with the Keychain by default. Last but not least, as of Version 2. Protected with bit Blowfish with Cipher Block Chaining CBC and randomized salt encryption, the bookmarklet itself requires a password before displaying any of your information. Liberate Your Bookmarks Most of us work in one, maybe two, browsers throughout the day depending on our needs.
The process is pretty straightforward—custom tailored for most popular browsers. Make a better mark Now these bookmarklets are pretty useful and very cross platform-friendly, but as usual, web technologies are easily trumped by good desktop software. The second punch Pukka brings to the ring is a menu-bar item that acts as a bookmarks menu for your del. This menu organizes all your del. This menu also has a very significant and positive side effect of allowing you to use any browser you want or even swap between them throughout your daily routine.
Another bookmark menu option If you simply need to view all your del. That said, the price is right, and delibar is fun to use. While these might seem like solutions to a nonexistent problem for people who use the same machines day after day, it can make for a much better surfing experience for those who are constantly using a different computer. You can access options in Safari usually reserved for developers by typing a single line in the Terminal and discover a world of options ranging from the incomprehensible to the indispensable.
You can jailbreak your phone but later software updates might not work. Those are just two specific examples, but the general rule of thumb is that the more work a hack is, the bigger the payoff. Enabling the Safari Debug Menu is one hack that breaks the rule. Enabling the Debug menu is dead simple, the payoff is huge and there is no loss of functionality.
A win, win, win situation as far as a hacker is concerned. As mentioned before, the hack is deliciously simple. Fire up the Terminal application and type: defaults write com. Safari IncludeDebugMenu 1 Nothing happens in the Terminal when you run the command and, if you left Safari running, nothing much seems to happen to Safari. Most of the options are only of interest to developers or those working on Safari in Cupertino. Some are actually very fun. Want to see how much surfing Safari can take?
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Safari contacts del. This lets you use Safari while telling the servers it is some other browser. If the functionality seems questionable at first why would you want Safari to masquerade as a different browser? However, there are plenty of sites that are Internet Explorer IE -only because of laziness or sloppy coding.
Changing the user agent in the Debug menu gets you into those formerly inaccessible sites. Amazon, for example, sends Mobile Safari users to a page that is much less bandwidth intensive and easier on the eyes see Figure The Amazon web page for Mobile Safari If no amount of user-agent trickery will get you the results you need, the Debug menu saves you from scrambling through your Applications folder looking for a compatible browser.
When you enable the Debug menu, you also get a surprisingly adept site inspector tool. This is a tool that can inspect any element of a page you find of interest, fully nested and color coded for easy deciphering. Web Inspector reveals all There is more to the Debug menu. That is hard to read! Now that the Debug menu has been revealed, it is natural to wonder if every Apple-created application has this hidden feature. It would be a lot of fun after all if you could muck about with any application you wanted in developer fashion.
Unfortunately not all applications have a hidden Debug menu—but a few do. Try this trick out with iCal to find another application with a less-fun Debug menu. If you ever get tired of having the Debug menu around, turning it off is as simple as launching the Terminal and typing: defaults write com. Does the lack of interest mean that your web server running OS 9 is safe? I run all my servers and keep them on Mac OS 9. I have never had a firewall, and I have never been hit in all these years, even though I appear on TV shows with other hackers and the like. Learn how to host a site from the comfort of your own home using cheap hardware with this very useful hack.
I later upgraded that with a Sonnnet G3 processor, and now am using a 1. Define Your Needs What kind of web site is ideal for this? The one I host is a genealogically oriented site with a searchable database containing over 30, names and around 10, families, all connected to our progenitors, Matthew and Rose Greenell of Lexden, England. Please plan on running your web server on a separate machine from your regular home machine s.
The reasons include performance and most of all, security. You really need to keep your web server isolated from the rest of your network, for reasons more completely explained later in the hack. If you want to use a Mac, the first thing you need to decide upon is old er hardware or new er hardware. Like I said at the start, my site initially ran on a very elderly PowerMac Storage may be a problem because SCSI hard disks are getting tougher to find, but hey, how about the early G3 beige towers and desktops? Any of these machines will work well with Mac OS 9. All I can say is you should have all your web server data backed up to a separate drive if you use this or any solution.
That caution aside, PWS is a great way to cheaply throw together a web server with an old and otherwise unwanted Mac. Suffice it to say, any Mac truly capable of running OS X will make a great web server. Heck, there are people out there using PowerBooks as web servers. Most ISPs will provide this service for an additional fee. Some may try to put you into a business plan and thus charge a large additional fee. If they do, shop around for another provider using the databases on www. This is entirely legal, and for a typical casual Internet surfer, totally transparent.
Two of my coworkers were faced with this problem that was only corrected by paying extra for a static IP address. That was all the ISP wanted—to make users pay for bandwidth they were otherwise guaranteed they would have available. I use www. The domain registration service is needed not only to protect your domain name, but also is used to translate your domain name www. Once registered, as long as your site is not violating copyright, obscenity, or other laws, no one else can take that domain name or take your site down.
Setting up your account with a registration service can be different from service to service. You will need to find out if the name you want is even available. Most of these services offer free domain searches from their home page. You will need to decide if your site is a. When you have identified and registered your domain name, you will need to locate the page that you use to translate your domain name to the static IP address assigned by your ISP.
This is necessary because you and I work with names—much easier to remember. The Internet, however, works with IP addresses, which are a lot harder to remember. Domain name servers DNS store this lookup information and perform the translation from name to address. Most domain registration companies provide domain name services.
When you have done this, you are almost ready to go online! It can actually take a few days for your new domain name to propagate throughout all the DNS servers across the globe, so people might not be able to see your site right away. This gives you time to start setting up your router to permit outsiders to see your web server and only your web server. You will have to do a fair amount of research and maybe will need more than one conversation with your ISP to make sure you have all the information to set up your router and network computers correctly. I strongly suggest the use of a router, whether you have one computer or many.
Routers have builtin security features that make it more difficult for folks on the Internet to peek inside your network. Most routers also have features to open themselves up to individual machines, and this is what I will discuss momentarily. First, the web server computer will need to have its own static IP address.
Get back with your ISP to make sure you have not only your static IP address, but also your subnet mask, DNS server addresses, and search domain information. If there are two addresses, copy them both. Gateway address Your ISP provides this number. Subnet mask You should get this from your ISP. It should look something, but not exactly like the following list. Just plug those numbers into the assigned fields. For example, if you want to assign your web server an internal IP address like Some more explaining is needed here. You are actually working with different kinds of IP addresses.
Your router automatically translates or routes addresses from the outside the Internet to your internal network. This is a function known as Network Address Translation NAT , which actually helps hide your network from the Internet and is your primary mode of protection. On the other side of your router is your internal network, for which your router either assigns IP addresses from its own DHCP server,or permits devices with static IP addresses to operate as long as they fall within the correct range of addresses like your web server.
With only one IP address on the Internet side, you can theoretically have hundreds of computers sharing that single outside IP address. Your internal network computers can communicate with each other without going outside, but if they need to go to a web page on the Internet, the router automatically translates the address to the Internet along with all the rest of the users on your internal network. Your ISP will certainly make note of a high level of traffic at all times, and will likely object and will probably insist on you upgrading your account to a higher traffic business account.
This said, there are two ways in which consumer routers can be configured to let your web server work correctly. The most common method is the DMZ demilitarized zone. This may be less of an issue with a Mac but is still an issue nonetheless. The DMZ and virtual server methods described next are also used by computer gamers, who need to open specific ports on their routers so they can share data with other gamers. The other method, offered on my Belkin router and probably others, is what they call a virtual server. What this does is open only specific ports on the router for a designated computer to connect to the Internet.
For example, if you are using a standard web server, you would only need to open up port 80, which is the Internet standard for HTTP servers. If you wish to move files back and forth from the Internet using File Transfer Protocol FTP , you need to open up port 25 on the virtual server. There are so many variations based upon platform, manufacturer, etc. With either of these two configurations, your web server and the rest of the computers on your internal network should be able to access the Internet and function properly.
No sense in securing your web server from the wired Internet only to leave it and the rest of your network vulnerable to wireless attacks. Running simple static, low-traffic web sites requires very little in the area of RAM or processor speed. This could be a great application for an older machine. First, boot your Mac OS 9-based Mac we are presuming you already have installed the operating system and are ready to load the web server software , and load the Mac OS 9.
Double-click the Software Installers folder. Then, double-click the Personal WebSharing folder. If you are ready to install, double-click the Installer icon. Install on your default hard drive. Launch Personal WebSharing. You are greeted by a menu shown in Figure to get you started on the path to running your own web server. This folder is where you will put all your HTML and graphics files.
There are two radio buttons: give everyone read-only access, and Use File Sharing to control user access. If you want a wide open web site that anyone can access, use the first choice. If you want to set up access permissions beyond the scope of this article , use the second choice. This is usually a file named something like index. This brings up a new window. Select the file for this test, use default. MIME Types tab? Leave it alone. Actions tab? If you have made any changes, click the Save button. Otherwise, click the close button at the upper left of the window see Figure Your computer is ready to serve To start the web server, click the Start button on the main PWS control panel.
If you get the Apple file named default. You want to create your own. You will need to write your web pages in HTML. There are also plenty of freeware, open source, and shareware products out there. Check out www. As mentioned earlier, the builtin web server that comes with every copy of Mac OS X is the industrial-strength open source product, Apache. Apache runs on more web servers than just about any other product out there. Make sure the Services tab is selected.
Click the checkbox for Personal Web Sharing. In a moment, Apache will be up and running see Figure Turning Personal Web Sharing on Your web server is now running! Now, what do you do with it, and where do you put your files? Your web site normally is placed in the Documents folder at this location. The difference is how you would access the site from the Internet. Please note that the IP address and user account are examples only. When you activate PWS in the Services tab of the Sharing window, you will see the exact addresses for both options toward the bottom of the window.
Clicking the first example link in the Services tab of the Sharing window, you will be taken to an Apache home page. Clicking the second example takes you to a PWS home page. Either link shows the server is functioning. To set your web site up for outside use why else would you be setting one up? You want to create your own content. Because OS X is using Apache, and has a whole library of tools preinstalled for your use, including PHP, MySQL, Perl, and such, with mostly free open source software, you can create very powerful and professional web sites.
You can also build a complete web content management system that includes user forums, photo galleries, news, articles, download areas, and more. These are but a few examples of what you can do with your own web site running on your own Macintosh at your own home. The Apple-supplied browser rendered pages with incredible speed and felt positively zippy. As time passed, you undoubtably noticed Safari lost some of its zippiness. Everyone wants a faster web browsing experience and ISPs are always trying to boost bandwidth to get an advantage over the competition.
Most Safari users have experienced these slowdowns. As Safari is used, the caches get bloated, favicons get out of control, and cookies run amok. If Safari was slowing down prior to Safari 3. Once the operation was complete, Safari was faster but any speed gain was more than offset by the maddening process of reentering passwords and rebuilding autofill information.
As previously mentioned, Safari 3 alleviates this problem by allowing users to select what information they would like reset. Often enough that it would be nicer if you had an Apple Script to do the job instead of having to make conscious decisions each time about what to reset and what to leave. There is a script to do just that: try tell application "Finder" -- Let's get the name of the current user set myUserName to do shell script "whoami" -- Is Safari running? Click the run button. The script worked! The trouble is that uploading files for others to see can often reveal more information than you intend to share.
Take control of the amount of information others can gain from the files you post by understanding where the data hides and how to keep from sharing the data you want to stay personal. There is data associated with your files that you are probably not aware of. Metadata is data about your data.
The concept seems redundant, but metadata makes your computing life much easier. Metadata can be much more complicated than that. For example, metadata associated with your digital photos and stored within the files, reveals the camera you used and the focal length at the time of the shot.
Metadata associated with documents reveals the creator of the file and the program used to generate the file. This metadata is indexed by Spotlight and is used to generate the lightning fast and pinpoint accurate searches Mac users have come to know and love. When you start flinging files around a network or the Internet, metadata can become a serious problem. One is reminded of the case of Cat Schwartz who had some interesting pictures taken for her blog and posted said pictures. In one telling example, the Balco steroid trial names were inadvertently released when a PDF was released with names blacked out on the document, names readily accessible via the metadata.
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But before you can decide what information you want to share you should know what information is there. Depending on the file type, OS X offers several ways to have a look at your metadata with varying levels of completeness. The most obvious method is invoking the Get Info single-click the file in question and hit Command-I, or simply right-click and select Get Info.
For a more complete picture of the metadata associated with a file a quick trip to the Terminal is in order. This is your chance to add information about the file—information that Spotlight can use to locate files. Think of it as your license to tag things for use by Spotlight or any program that relies on the Spotlight database. The mdimport program imports the metadata while the -d flag stands for debug. Debug sounds like some scary programming thing, but in this instance the -d option followed by merely specifies the level of detail revealed. Feel free to adjust the level though; the information returned can be fun to look at.
Text editors can get around the formatting limitation, but you can use the text generated by mdimport equally well. Not the best idea. The easiest way to get around this is to save any document generated in Word, Excel, etc.
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That strips out the comments and most of the other stuff you might not want the recipient to see. If you really want to use JPEG, convert back to. JPEG, and the Exif data will be lost in the process. No luck. While these steps will strip away most of the embarrassing data about any files you share, there will still be information left.
Big Book of Apple Hacks: Tips & Tools for Unlocking the Power of Your Apple Devices
Inspecting the file will still reveal the creator, the time the file was created, and other seemingly harmless information. You want to cover your tracks with a maximum of obfuscation? Coupled with TOR [Hack 49], that method should keep the jackboots at bay for a little while.
Computers were built for the repetitive: empower your Mac to take the drudgery out of collecting images. One of the suggested hacks for this book involved grabbing all the images off a web site with minimal user intervention. The idea was sound: suppose you want to be a professional stalker; it would certainly behoove you to collect all the images of your chosen victim automatically, freeing you to print the images and stick them up in a little shrine dedicated to the chosen celebrity.
That may be an extreme example. Few of us will ever reach the level of professional stalker, after all. On the other hand, many of us have stumbled across a web album or a Flickr page of images that have some personal meaning to us. When you talk about avoiding drudgery with a Mac, the most common solution is to use Automator, and it turns out enough people want to scrape the Web for images that you can find a simple version of this built right into the starting page of Automator.
Tweaking the workflow is necessary. In this case, the goal is ending up with images, so we need to limit the results to images only. As you can see in Figure , the workflow will yield what you want. The corrected workflow The tweaked script runs nicely, running through a web site and downloading all the images it happens across. A lot of pictures Using Automator for this task has the advantage of being very visual and self-explanatory. The reason is that the Automator action looks only two links deep. The solution to this problem is a command-line application called wget.
The wget program simplifies scraping the Web for the stuff in this case images you want. You can download the latest version and build the program yourself, which is an interesting experience but for the purposes of grabbing images, an older version of wget works just as well as the latest and greatest. For many users, this will be the easiest way, and it will open up some new doors to command-line hacks.
Since wget is a command-line application, these files need to go in specific folders. Now that wget is installed where it needs to be, you can start downloading images using your brand-new application. All wget really needs is a URL and a file type see Figure If you want wget to follow only links from the starting page one level deep, use -l1. So now that wget is on your machine play around with it, there is a lot of fun to be had. This has the advantage of making it more difficult for novice users to really mess things up but has the disadvantage of forcing those who are fairly comfortable with their machines to use the command line to add programs like wget.
If you loathe the command line, you can still use the familiar drag-and-drop methodology by forcing OS X to reveal the invisible files and folders on your computer. After the action has run, the formerly invisible file and folders can be manipulated via the familiar GUI methods. Protect your information using this valuable hack.
Web-based applications are becoming increasingly popular, offering a variety of compelling advantages over desktop-based applications, both to developers and to users. These applications are platform-independent, accessible from any Internet-connected computer, offer offsite data storage, and often provide integrated tools for collaboration and sharing. One major tradeoff, however, is a loss of privacy. While some of these web applications allow a user to tag certain data as private, Google Calendars, to cite one example , this is a very limited notion of privacy, referring only to whether the web-application provider will share user data with other parties such as other users.
This is a step back from the level of privacy afforded by desktop-based applications and should be recognized as such. We just need to think more creatively. Unfortunately, many most? What do I mean by user-initiated database translucency? The idea here is for you, the user, to encrypt your personal data before it finds its way onto the web-application server. As long as the encrypted data is considered valid by the application i. Later, when you need to view some of this data, the decryption and viewing can be done offline.
If you do this right, your data will remain usable to you in the context of the web application without ever being visible unencrypted to the web-application provider. This encrypted text is copied to the clipboard, ready to be pasted into a text field in your web application. Page Axe also allows you to view this encrypted data. At its core, Page Axe is simply moving text between trusted desktop-land and untrusted browser-land in a way that guarantees data privacy is maintained.
This, however, leaves a lot to be desired in terms of usability, so I added a few extra features: Context for decrypted text Select a block of text from the web application that includes encrypted private data, and Page Axe will locate, decrypt, and display the private data in the context of the entire text block using Growl, if installed. Easy in, easy out Page Axe encryption and decryption can be accessed via Quicksilver triggers. Mobile application Just drag the app and your key onto your portable USB drive, and access your private data from any computer um… any Mac. To get a real handle on what Page Axe can do, you need to see it in action: check out Figures , , , and Encrypted text is pasted into a web application Figure Alternative UI hooks are possible, such as this Quicksilver trigger Page Axe is only one implementation of this concept of user-initiated privacy for web applications, written as a full-blown desktop application.
Alternatively, one might figure out how to implement this as a Firefox extension, a bookmarklet, an InputManager hack on Mac OS X , an offline browser, a platform-independent Java application for use on a portable USB flash drive, or perhaps something else. I think one fascinating possibility here would be to incorporate this technique into applications designed to automatically sync offline and online data. Many interesting possibilities exist here. In summary, the move towards web-based applications comes at the expense of our privacy, but with the techniques outlined here, you can reclaim the privacy of your data any time you like!
Of course, Apple designs its software to appeal to the largest number of its users, and any time a person or company tries to appeal to the broadest number of users, there is a risk of pandering to the lowest common denominator. While Apple largely avoids this trap with Mac OS X, there are still bound to be times when you wished Mac OS X was tailored a little more closely to your personal preferences. There is good news: Mac OS X is highly hackable. You can move Widgets to your Desktop, add a quit option to the Finder, or adopt a variety of fun, interesting, and productivity-enhancing hacks.
This chapter covers everything from changing the default file type of screenshots to getting things done with Automator. Find the differences and your hacking capabilities with this guide. Just what version is Tiger? When did iChat come along? Slow, unstable and full of bugs, but it was a serious alternative to OS 9.
Mac OS X The first true release of Mac OS X, Cheetah was more stable than the Beta but still left a lot to be desired, though Cheetah did bring back the Apple menu that was missing in the Beta version. Stability and speed still needed attention, too. Of supreme interest to those using the Terminal is that Panther changed the default shell of Mac OS X from tcsh to bash.
Make it go away. So the only question left is: just how much do you love Dashboard? Removing the Dashboard icon from the Dock seems to be a possible fix, but that will only free a little more Dock space and still leave Dashboard running in the background.
To truly kill Dashboard and to keep the program from restarting every time the computer is restarted, it is time for a trip to the Terminal [Hack 30]. Hit Return You would think that would be enough to get rid of Dashboard, but you would be wrong again. There are a lot of ways to do this. You could log out and back in, you could restart the machine, or you could go to the basement and flip the breaker that controls the circuit your machine is using. That is to say the widgets you were running will be running again, and widgets you moved to your Desktop will reappear.
Move that much-loved widget to the Desktop. Dashboard was one of the most hyped, and consequently, anticipated features of Tiger. In this case, both the hype and the anticipation were accurate; Dashboard really is a fairly great addition to Mac OS X. It is even better in Leopard [Hack 93]. The biggest problem with Dashboard is that some of the widgets are a little too good. Take, for example, the Stock widget. This nifty widget, which shipped with Tiger, beautifully and informatively displays the current price of your financial holdings. With money on the line, stock prices are something that people like to check with obsessive frequency.
The most obvious thing to do is constantly hit the Dashboard key or mash the scroll ball on the Mighty Mouse. However, constantly invoking Dashboard can get a little repetitive. What we need is a method to move the widget from the Dashboard to the Desktop. May 18, at pm. March 23, at pm. Ruth says:. December 15, at am. TJ says:. October 25, at pm. Cornelius says:. September 24, at am. Tracey says:.
September 9, at pm. Aoife says:. June 21, at am. Aamir says:. June 17, at am. Dante says:. June 3, at am. Randy says:. May 28, at am. Morten Slott Hansen says:. February 6, at am. Christopher says:. December 2, at pm. November 17, at pm. September 22, at am. September 21, at am. OSXDaily says:. Mike says:. Jason says:. September 20, at pm. Joseph says:. Problem There are times you want to report a problem to the user, yet its not severe enough to require an edit.
The user needs a kind of warning or notice. Problem Many times, a rule for validation really needs to be built from multiple conditions and fields. Problem Many users prefer to blend several validators into one error message. Problem A single validator, button, or the ValidationSummary control needs to handle multiple Validation Groups. For example, a textbox is shared by two ValidationGroups so its validators need to work with both groups.
Problem If you want to customize the format of the error message, such as show an image, you have to embed HTML into the ErrorMessage property. This causes several problems. HTML in the error message may not be right for the ValidationSummary, requiring you to write another error message with the same text but without the HTML just for the summary.
Problem Users often click the submit button several times before noticing that there is a validation error that prevents the page from submitting. Problem A consistent set of error messages is preferred across a site. Since users have to enter the ErrorMessage property each time, error messages may not be consistent. Problem Error messages cannot contain runtime information such as the current value of the field that caused the error. Error messages cannot automatically embed design time properties such as the minimum or a label associated with the textbox.
Problem The list of data types that can be evaluated is fixed. You cannot extend the system to handle new data types or customize the data types to fit your needs better. Problem You can only attach the ControlToValidate property to a control within the same naming container. For example, if your validator is in a User Control, it must point to another component in that UserControl.